What is Candida? Definition:
When it comes to Candida definition is not hard to find because of its terrible influence in virulent forms. Candida, a genus of yeasts, has made its mark in history of common fungal infections for decades. There are species of this yeast genus, which by Candida definition, are part of the human microflora and there are some which finds good use in commercial purposes. Then there are those that can cause great discomfort to us when they transform into their virulent forms. To be precise, there are Candida species which even after being a common resident of the human microbiota can give rise to Candidiasis. These commensals take great advantage when the human immunity is suppressed or compromised one way or the other and divide rapidly, there by casing overgrowth and secrete toxic substances that give rise to discomfort.
Candida albicans is one such species that is present in mammalian hosts and can greatly help with Candida definition, while some of the others belonging to the same genus live endosymbiotic lifestyles in insects. Some of the major cause of concerns with this genus includes systemic infections mainly caused in the blood stream and deep organ tissues and mostly choose immunocompromised patients as their victims, due to weak immunity.
Candida albicans is a species of fungus which can be found on the skin and within the mucous membrane. It is also found in the human gut, mouth, and vagina. This Candida yeast also can also get into the blood stream through wounds, and can also affect the intestines, genitals, throat, and body organs. Candida albicans can only cause trouble when the environment in the body changes, which leads the fungus to quickly grow out of control. Candida definition of its infection can be described as a state where the resident microorganism takes a virulent form when its environment is to its liking. Another way of defining Candida is that it is regarded as a highly opportunist fungus, as it can easily spread from one part of the body to another.
Where Do Candida Infections Occur?
Candida definition of the infection can see this fungus occur commonly in the mouth, skin, or genitals. But sometimes it has no particular reason why it can occur, other than recent antibiotic use, which destroys the healthy microorganisms within the body, and this leads to multiplication of the fungus.
Candida definition can be recognized in its truest sense when its common symptoms start showing. Here are some of the areas it can affect:
This infection can be seen on skin as a red and inflamed, with some rashes.
Can cause vaginalitis moniliasis, a Candida infection generally found in vagina.
It can also infect the nails.
It can affect the digestion process in the intestine.
Candida infection is more common in men with an uncircumcised penis than in those with an circumcised penis, and it may sometimes get contracted during intercourse with a partner that is infected.
In some cases such as aids and leukemia when resistance of the body is low, the candida fungus can enter into the bloodstream and can cause infections in the organs.
How Antibiotics Promote Yeast Infection?
Candida definition can get real simple when antibiotics come into play. This is because these medications have the potential to kill the good bacteria that keeps Candida and other yeasts in check. With prolonged use, it can be the major cause of Candida overgrowth and perforation of the mucosa layer as well. Most women get easily affected with Candida in comparison to male, especially in the genital area.
How Immunosuppressant Promote Yeast Infection?
A recent study published in 2011 analyzed the colonization effects of Candida in the GI tract and it’s relation with inflammation. It showed that when human patients were administered Lactobacillus acidophilus, their symptoms reduced, and in case of mice with ulcers, when acetic acid was administered the size decreased. This helped to conclude that as Candida albicans colonization slows down the healing process, it is hard for patients to recover, especially with the administration of antibiotics and immunosuppressant.
This study gives a clear perspective why patients receiving treatment with immunosuppressant and antibiotics take more time to heal from Candida colonization. It is easier to maintain the human microbiome without the administration of such medicine which delays the healing process.
Symptoms of Candida
Confused about Candida symptoms? Candida definition can set it straight. This is so, because it has a very distinct characteristic symptom for each infection, which helps in defining it.
A thrush also known as oral Candidiasis is accompanied by creamy white patches, which can be inflamed sometimes. This is found on the tongue or throat part of the oral cavity.
Scaly skin with a reddish coloration can be a symptom of diaper rash often caused by Candida.
Candida vaginitis is one such disease that is very common in woman. Its characteristic symptom is yellowish white discharge. It also leads to inflammation of the vaginal walls, the vulva are the external genitalia and is often accompanied by a burning and/or itching sensation.
Pus development is also a symptom when Candida causes toe nail or finger nail infection. At first it gets inflamed and turns red, followed by pus development if left untreated.
The penis head gets all red and inflamed when Candida causes balanitis.
Systemic infections (in bloodstream) can cause deep organ damage including the heart, eyes, kidney and lungs.
It can cause blood to appear in urine, when kidney is affected.
For the heart, murmurs are accompanied by valve damage.
It can get real painful with the eyes, leading to blurred vision.
Acute seizures and changes in mental functioning is a direct cause of brain damage by Candida.
An article published in 2013 aiming to find the pathogenicity mechanism of Candida albicans stated that although Candida albicans is a normal microorganism of the human microbiome, when there are environmental factors present, then it can metamorphose in to their virulent form. Some of these virulent forms as identified through the study are biofilm formation, secretion of hydrolases, contact sensing, pH sensing and their ability to adapt to a the internal environment of the host body. It concluded that although the anti-fungal drugs at present work just fine when the virulent factors that lead to hypha formation are targeted, better therapeutic methods could be added to the list of treatments.
This study shows that tackling the issues of Candidiasis can get easier with time and knowledge of the virulent factors of Candida sp. It also goes to show that having better therapeutic methods to deal with Candida is necessary and is possible.
Candida definition is hard to describe when the symptoms aren’t clear which is why treatment normally begins quite late in the entire process of colony formation. Candida treatment can be done at home with prescribed medication. In this, topical antifungal medication such as tioconazole, clotrimazole, nystatin, miconazole or orally administered drugs like fluconazole and amphotericin B are used. Women generally prefer taking fluconazole when they have vaginal Candidiasis, instead of using topical creams. Most of the times antifungal drugs clears the trouble, but this infection can also recur sometimes by having sexual intercourse with an infected partner. It is advised to discontinue the use of antibiotics during a fungal infection as it can trigger the breeding of infection. But one must first consult their doctor before discontinuing any prescribed medication. For infants suffering from diaper rashes, barrier creams and changing the baby’s diaper frequently can be of great help in order to deal with the infection. Those with a tendency to get affected with Candidiasis of the skin should try to keep their body’s skin dry. It is essential to wear loose clothing, ideally made from cotton, and maintain good hygiene.
Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms – Virulence Journal – 2013 – By François L. Mayer, Duncan Wilson, Bernhard Hube
Inflammation & gastrointestinal Candida colonization – Current Opinion in Microbiology Journal – 2011 – By Carol A. Kumamoto
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