Candida lipolytica was first found in the blood and is mostly seen in patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. There are actually two types of C. lipolytica strains, and to control them ATCC 9773 strain of C. lipolytica are used. Candida lipolytica was identified by using the standard procedures. MICs tests indicated that there were antifungal susceptibilities which were influenced to: amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole with respect to all strains of this fungus. In vitro testing, it was found that C. lipolytica could produce large amounts of slime material which is a type of viscid in form of glucose, which was the likely reason for its adheribility with yeast. Identical profile was revealed by Restriction fragment length polymorphisms for all clinical isolates. It was found that due to the genomic differences between the isolates and the control strains were indicating certain degree of genetic difference between C. lipolytica isolates from its existing geographical areas.
In 1970, a study revealed the sexual reproduction in C. lipolytica. This study showed that candida is generally found in lipid and protein rich medium as in case of dairy products, but not in sugar rich medium and is present in heterothallic haploid state mostly. When presented with the right sporulation medium, it can conjugate with the opposite sex strain and form ascospores. It revealed that this heterothallic state of candida can be improved to use it for technological purposes in future.
This study is a proof that shows this candida species can be of great use when its strain is modified, which is rarely seen in candida species and can present us with opportunities when in its heterothallic state.
Candida lipolytica: catheter related candidemia
A study was published in 1989 on the microbiological, clinical and experimental aspects of candida lipolytica. Several isolates from different patients were studied for all of these aspects. It revealed that there was a consistency in the physiological and morphological characteristics of C. lipolytica. It also goes on to say that this species is weakly virulent and commonly causes candidemia associated with vascular catheters. It concluded that the best treatment in this case is either with Amphotericin B and it is better to remove vascular catheter whenever possible.
This showed that although C. lipolytica is not that harmful and its pathogenicity is comparatively less than the other pathogenic Candida sp., still it can be a cause of infection in relation with vascular-catheters, which can be prevented by removal of such catheters when as frequently as possible or in, extreme cases administration of Amphotericin B can help.
Candida lipolytica was found in six patients in three different health centers. The isolates caused a very resistant fungemia with catheter associated C.thrombophlebitis and then the second isolate was found in a polymicrobial sinusitis, and the remaining four isolates were associated with tissue colonization. By this, it can be concluded that C. lipolytica is a weak pathogen which requires a foreign body to cause fungemia. C. lipolytica is an aerobic inhabitant in the environment, and is capable of producing intense secretory fluid. It can be used in the detergent, food, and other pharmaceutical industries. There are several processes based on this species which are classified as safe by the Food and Drug Administration. Candida lipolytica occurs most in systems where immune system is compromised or the patient is critically ill. By reviewing studies it was found that the patient was neutropenic, or was having infected vascular catheter.
Pathogenicity of the species
Candida lipolytica is a very weak type of pathogen which is connected with vascular catheter related fungemia. About 26 isolates of C. lipolytica are examined in many research studies in order to demonstrate its consistency. C. lipolytica isolates can be differentiated by using isolates of Cadosina ingens by colonial morphology. Cadosina ingens has not yet classified as any human pathogen. There are cases where patient also had fungemia without any past evidence of deep visceral infection, such as endophthalmitis, arthritis, or hepatic, osteomyelitis infection. It was also found that the absence of mortality of only two lesions indicates that this species is weakly virulent. Although the infected venous catheter was removed from the index patient and this was caused due to the persistent fungemia. It has been reported that colonizing and infecting Candida populations are mostly a type of microevolution. This type of genetic variation is seen primarily due to the re-organization of genomic in sequential manner. Therefore, in order to solve this issue genomic typing was performed in order to compare strains of Candida lipolytica, which was taken from patient during their two episodes of treatment. It was found that Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identical over time for all the isolates. This finding concluded that the microevolutionary changes in the population of the infecting strain was absent, even though with respect to the length of the sepsis and the patients were examined for 20 days.
Clinical Studies of Candida Lipolytica – Journal of Clinical Microbiology – 1989 – By Walsh T.J, Salkin I.F, Dixon D.M & Hurd N.J
Candida Lipolytica – Science Journal – 1970 – By Wickerham LJ, Kurtzman CP & Herman AI
The Yeasts – A Taxonomic Study – Book by Cletus Kurtzman and J.W. Fell – 1998
Nonconventional Yeasts in Biotechnology – Book by Klaus Wolf – 2012