Candida Parapsilosis

Candida Parapsilosis is a type of fungus infection which belongs to the Candida Family. It is basically found in small amounts on the skin and mucous membrane of normal healthy people.

This fungus has aroused some quite serious concerns in the last decade as this fungus is drug resistant, and is more likely to affect people with a weakened immune system. It is found that some of these Candida infections are caused by infected blood which is used for medicinal purposes, and according to a study it is found that C.Parapsilosis is responsible for about 15% of all the Candida infections. The symptoms of this infection are very unpredictable, sometimes it is found on the heart lining as endocarditis in drug addicts, and sometimes as an infection in the eye, mouth or vagina. In worst cases, it effects the internal membranes of the brain which can cause sudden death. It may also cause serious pneumonia or arthritis. Normally people with HIV/AIDS have a weaker immune system are at a higher risk of this infection.  Diabetics, elderly people and infants sometimes fall under this category.
 

Candida Parapsilosis
Candida Parapsilosis
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Symptoms

Candida Parapsilosis is naturally found in the body in little amount, and the naturally occurring friendly bacteria in our body helps to keep the growth of this fungus in control. This infection is also known to spread in the bloodstream of weak patients and result in serious infections. Antifungal drug should be used in order to remove unwanted fungus and in order to deal with Candida infections, fluconazole is used; Amphotericin B may also be used in some occasional cases. According to the study and clinical research it has been found that Candida Parapsilosis has three stages and they are termed as Group-I, Group-II, Group-III. Group-I is mostly found in clinical settings and it is termed as Candida Parapsilosis, Group II is termed as Candida orthopsilosis and Group III as Candida metapsilosis. It was found that patients infected with this fungus often experience shortness of breath and disorientation and in order to provide some relief, oxygen face masks are used. Outbreak of this infection is caused from the other infected patients. Fungus infection like this can adhere to prosthetic materials and form a biofilm and then it infiltrates into the intravenous fluid and infects the blood stream. It can also penetrate into the wound and enter into the blood streams and then their immune system is compromised leading to more serious infections if left untreated.

 

Treatment

In order to treat the infection in the blood stream intravenous fluids are used such as saline, as it is said to contain 0.9 % sodium chloride (NaCl) and are given to the patients using intravenous drip. It was found that IV fluid administration helps to treat low blood pressure which may have been caused due Candida Parapsilosis blood infections.
 

Anti-pyretic drugs are also used in order to reduce fever which is mostly found in patients infected with Candida Parapsilosis infection. There are drugs such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen, aspirin that can be given orally depending on the health condition of the infected patient. Anti-pyretic can also be used to lower the side effects of Amphotericin B. However, use of aspirin in young patients can also lead to development of Reye’s syndrome which causes the liver in the body to swell leading to some serious health conditions.

 

What Does Research Suggest?

A study conducted under the ‘Journal of Clinical Microbiology’, in 1987 aimed to find the relation between blood transducers that were contaminated, parenteral nutrition and fungemia caused by Candida parapsilosis was discovered. This study stated that out of 205 patients that tested positive for the presence of Candida species, there were 32 subjects with Candida parapsilosis. It was found to be a causative agent of hospital acquired infections that were mostly related with invasive devices as well as parenteral nutrition.
 

Another study published in the ‘Infectious Diseases Society of America Journal’, in 1997 aimed to study the emergence of the parapsilosis species of Candida as the major pathogen in causing Candidemia in children. Out of 81 cases 40 episodes were found to be caused from Candida parapsilosis and it thus concluded that this species was the leading cause of Candidemia in children. It also stated that the high rate of isolation of this species could be the reason why the mortality rate was found to be less in comparison to previous cases.

Both of these studies goes to show that Candida parapsilosis is without doubt a major pathogen that is mainly associated with hospital acquired infections. It can be difficult to say what particular medical procedure is causing this infection, but some possible reasons could be contamination of medical equipment, or patients who have undergone some sort of transplant in hospital.
 
However, it can also be clearly seen that this particular species of Candida that if it’s treated early, then it has a good number of recovery cases. This shows that when this major pathogen is detected early, its effects can be controlled and treated successfully which won’t result in being fatal to the subjects.   For any patients who have experienced symptoms of Candida infection, especially after a recent procedure in hospital, should contact their doctor immediately for guidance.

 

References:
Candida parapsilosis – An Emerging Fungal – Clinical Microbiology Reviews Journal – 2008 – By David Trofa, Attila Gácser, Joshua D. Nosanchuk
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2570155/
 
Candida parapsilosis fungemia – Journal of Clinical Microbiology – 1987 – By J J Weems Jr, M E Chamberland, J Ward, M Willy, A A Padhye & S L Solomon
http://jcm.asm.org/content/25/6/1029.short
 
Emergence of Candida parapsilosis as the Predominant Species Causing Candidemia in Children – By Itzhak Levy, Lorry G. Rubin, Sanjeev Vasishtha, Victor Tucci, & Sunil K. Sood
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/1086.short
 
Vaginal Candida parapsilosis – Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology – 2005 – By Paul Nyirjesy, Alynn B Alexander and M Velma Weitz
 

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