Candida Tropicalis belongs to the Candida-non-albicans group and it is a type of fungal infection which represents 4% of the yeasts population found in water bodies such as: seawater marine algae, and mangrove plants. This type of pathogenic infection is rapidly increasing on the global scale. This infection can also be cultured from fruits, feces and soil. This fungal infection is mostly found in blood streams and in neutropenic patients. In some cases, it may also appear in oral thrush or vaginal thrush.
This fungal species is classified as level 2 in terms of bio safety and accordingly has to be handled in the laboratory because of its high containment level. This fungus is also used for industrial purposes in industry dyes as it produces log chain of carboxylic acids which in turn help to remove unwanted color. Geographically it is found in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
Clinical and Laboratory Tests Conducted
Candida Tropicalis can cause infections when it’s rapidly overgrows in the body, and is considered to be an emerging pathogenic yeast, which has high resistance to fluconazole. In order to examine Candida Tropicalis infections, basic microscopic tests are done using 10% of potassium hydroxide, which are obtained after scraping skin, and analyzing body fluid such as blood or urine. This infection has reportedly been observed in the patients with acute leukemia and patients who have undergone transplantation of bone marrow. This infection was also found in patients who have undergone liver transplantation. This is mainly due to the colonization of such fungal infection in that area, and the type of continuous colonization may lead to dominance of Candida Tropicalis, which can very likely cause cross contamination.
Candida Tropicalis is also sometimes observed in oral thrush, but although the oral cavity has its own defensive mechanism, when it comes to Candida Tropicalis its defensive mechanism fails and this leads to the development of mycotic infections. In a study conducted it was found that Tropicalis has some resistance against fluconazole. The main reason behind this resistance is due to the higher MIC strains present in the patients due to the consistent dosage of anti-fungal regimes which in turn facilitates the colonization of Tropicalis fungus.
Measures for Controlling Fluconazole Resistance
In order to decrease the resistance of Candida Tropicalis the application of fluconazole should be restricted among high risk patient, so that the risk of emergence of resistant strains is reduced. The other way is by improving the immunity of the host which can further decrease the resistance of the bacteria. Usage of different anti-fungal agents can also be entertained in order to treat various underlying conditions. It’s recommended that patients shouldn’t be treated with the same drug over a period of time if he/she is still infected with this fungus after a course of the same antifungal medication. There also a few experts who suggest that Fluconazole should not be used on the host that has been infected with Candida Tropicalis as Fluconazole is shown to have little effect on this type of fungi.
Studies on Candida Tropicalis
A study published in 1979 about the influence of Candida tropicalis as a chief pathogen in immunocompromised human subjects was conducted. 89 patients had recently undergone bone marrow transplantation, and 60 patients were discovered with Candida albicans while 25 had Candida tropicalis. It was found the there was 15 infections were seen in 14 of these patients, and they were all caused by Candida tropicalis.
From this study, it can be clearly stated that Candida tropicalis is without a doubt a major pathogen that is equally capable of spreading and affecting patients with immunocompromised disorders and diseases. People who have a weakened immune system are more susceptible to having infections of Candida, this becomes more apparent in any patients who have had recent transplantation surgery of some sort.
The ‘Infectious Diseases Society of America’ published a study in 2001 which aimed to find the effect of Candida tropicalis in cancer patients. It was found in case of multivariate tests when compared to Candida albicans, a patient having Candida tropicalis was more susceptible to leukemia as well as neutropenia.
This study shows that not only does Candida tropicalis play a major role in affecting people with cancer but it also is more likely than Candida albicans in doing so. Hence it can be concluded that Candida tropicalis does play a major role as a pathogen in cases of cancer patients. But it’s important to treat all patients with Candida tropicalis properly; as by leaving the infection untreated it can cause further illnesses.
The Candida fungus thrives in the body when one consumes a lot of sugary or fermented foods, so it becomes vital for any affected person to cut out these foods from their diet. The foods to include in one’s diet to keep the Candida in control include: unsweetened natural yogurt, apple cider vinegar, honey, probiotics, and coconut oil.
Candida tropicalis: resistance to fluconazole – Journal of Medical Microbiology – 2010 – By Rajendra J. Kothavade and M. M. Kura
Clonal Population of Flucytosine – Emerging Infectious Diseases journal – 2008 – By Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Stéphane Bretagne and Claire Bernède
Candida tropicalis in immunocompromised patients – Annals of Internal Medicine Journal – 1979 – By Wingard JR, Merz WG, Saral R
Risk Factors for Candida tropicalis in Cancer Patients– Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal – 2001 – By Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Irfan Vaziri & Hend A. Hanna